OSI Physical layer


Bluetooth physical layer
Ethernet physical layer Including 10/100/1000BASE-T, 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-FX, 1000BASE-SX
I²C, I²S
IEEE 1394 interface
Optical Transport Network (OTN)
USB physical layer
Varieties of 802.11 Wi-Fi physical layers


MAC bridge: http://profesores.elo.utfsm.cl/~agv/elo309/doc/802.1D-1998.pdf

Network Equipments

Network interface controller
Ethernet hub
Fiber media converter

Switching Database Manager (SDM)


Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM): rapid table lookups by ACL engine

Layer 2 Learning    port learning policies
Layer 2 Forwarding  learned unicast and multicast addresses
Layer 3 Routing     unicast and multicast route lookups
ACL / QoS Table     identify the traffic according to security and QoS ACLs

If these resources are exhausted:
Layer 2 Forwarding and Learning, a new learned address will be flooded to all ports within the ingress VLAN.
Layer 3 Routing, any L3 unicast and multicast routes will be learned only in software and not programmed into the TCAM.

protocol data unit (PDU)


The layer 1 (Physical layer) PDU is the bit or, more generally, symbol ("stream").
The layer 2 (Data link layer) PDU is the frame.
The layer 3 (Network layer) PDU is the packet.
The layer 4 (Transport layer) PDU is the segment for TCP or the datagram for UDP.


Ethernet, the maximum frame size is 1518 bytes, 18 bytes of which are overhead (header and FCS), resulting in an MTU of 1500 byte.

Media for IP transport Maximum transmission unit (bytes) Notes
Internet IPv4 path MTU At least 68,[5] max of 64KB[6] Practical path MTUs are generally higher. Systems may use Path MTU Discovery[7] to find the actual path MTU.
Internet IPv6 path MTU At least 1280,[8] max of 64KB, but up to 4GB with optional jumbogram[9] Practical path MTUs are generally higher. Systems must use Path MTU Discovery[10] to find the actual path MTU.
Ethernet v2 1500[11] Nearly all IP over Ethernet implementations use the Ethernet V2 frame format.
Ethernet jumbo frames 1501 – 9198 or more[14] The limit varies by vendor. For correct interoperation, the whole Ethernet network must have the same MTU.[15] Jumbo frames are usually only seen in special-purpose networks.
PPPoE over Ethernet v2 1492[16] = Ethernet v2 MTU (1500) - PPPoE header (8)
PPPoE over Ethernet jumbo frames 1493 – 9190 or more[17] = Ethernet Jumbo Frame MTU (1501 - 9198) - PPPoE header (8)
WLAN (802.11) 2304 The maximum MSDU size is 2304 before encryption. WEP will add 8 bytes, WPA-TKIP 20 bytes, and WPA2-CCMP 16 bytes.



12-34-56-78-9A-BC =》 000100{1}[0] 00110100 01010110 01111000 10011010 10111100
[0] individual addresses
[1] group addresses


the frame is meant to reach only one receiving NIC. transmitted to all nodes within the collision domain. - In a modern wired setting the collision domain usually is the length of the Ethernet cable between two network cards. - In a wireless setting, the collision domain is as far as the radio transmitter can reach.

A switch will forward a unicast frame through all of its ports (except for the port that originated the frame), an action known as unicast flood, if the switch has no knowledge of which port leads to that MAC address.

multicast addressing

the frame will still be sent only once; however, NICs will choose to accept it based on criteria other than the matching of a MAC address: for example, based on a configurable list of accepted multicast MAC addresses.
Group addresses, like individual addresses, can be universally administered or locally administered.

FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF. A broadcast frame is flooded and is forwarded to and accepted by all other nodes.


802.11 wireless networks
IEEE 802.5 token ring
most other IEEE 802 networks
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), switched virtual connections only, as part of an NSAP address
Fibre Channel and Serial Attached SCSI (as part of a World Wide Name)
The ITU-T G.hn standard

Extended Unique Identifier (EUI) -64 identifiers

IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
IPv6 (Modified EUI-64 as the least-significant 64 bits of a unicast network address or link-local address when stateless autoconfiguration is used)
ZigBee / 802.15.4 / 6LoWPAN wireless personal-area networks

IEEE 802


802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols Working Group
802.2 developed the Logical Link Control (LLC) standard. officially disbanded.
802.3 Ethernet Working Group
802.11 Wireless LAN Working Group
802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Working Group
802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working Group
802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG
802.19 Wireless Coexistence Working Group
802.21 Media Independent Handover Services Working Group
802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks
802.24 Vertical Applications TAG

Ethernet II (DIX Ethernet) & 802.3 Frame

A version 1 Ethernet frame was never commercially deployed.

Preamble 7 octets
Start of frame delimiter 1 octet
MAC destination 6 octets
MAC source 6 octets
802.1Qtag (optional) (4 octets)
Ethertype(Ethernet II) or length (IEEE 802.3) 2 octets
Payload 46‑1500 octets
Frame check sequence(32‑bit CRC) 4 octets
Interpacket gap 12 octets

Layer 2 Ethernet frame: ← 64–1522 octets → Layer 1 Ethernet packet & IPG: ← 72–1530 octets → ← 12 octets →

The header = dst/src MAC + EtherType + optional IEEE 802.1Q tag

Frame type Ethertype or length Payload start two bytes
Ethernet II ≥ 1536 Any
Novell raw IEEE 802.3 ≤ 1500 0xFFFF
IEEE 802.2 LLC ≤ 1500 Other
IEEE 802.2 SNAP ≤ 1500 0xAAAA

EtherType can be used for two different purposes: - <=1500: the maximum length of the payload field of an Ethernet 802.3 frame is 1500 octets (0x05DC). - >=1536: protocol encapsulated in the payload of the frame. used as EtherType, the length of the frame is determined by the location of the interpacket gap and valid frame check sequence (FCS).

most popular FCS algorithm is a cyclic redundancy check (CRC)


a packet will occupy at least 12+8+64=84 / 92 / 96 bytes on the wire
1Gbps max PPS: 1,488,095 / 1,358,696 / 1,302,083


0x0800  Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
0x86DD  Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

0x0806  Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
0x0808  Frame Relay ARP
0x8035  Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

0x8847  MPLS
0x8848  MPLS with upstream-assigned label

0x880B  Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
0x8863  PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) Discovery Stage
0x8864  PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) Session Stage

0x8100  IEEE Std 802.1Q   - Customer VLAN Tag Type (C-Tag, formerly
                            called the Q-Tag) (initially Wellfleet)
0x88A8  IEEE Std 802.1Q   - Service VLAN tag identifier (S-Tag)

0x8808  IEEE Std 802.3    - Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON)
0x888E  IEEE Std 802.1X   - Port-based network access control

0x88B5  IEEE Std 802      - Local Experimental Ethertype
0x88B6  IEEE Std 802      - Local Experimental Ethertype
0x88B7  IEEE Std 802      - OUI Extended Ethertype

0x88C7  IEEE Std 802.11   - Pre-Authentication (802.11i)
0x890D  IEEE Std 802.11   - Fast Roaming Remote Request (802.11r)

0x88CC  IEEE Std 802.1AB  - Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP)
0x88E5  IEEE Std 802.1AE  - Media Access Control Security
0x8917  IEEE Std 802.21   - Media Independent Handover Protocol
0x88F5  IEEE Std 802.1Q   - Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol(MVRP)
0x88F6  IEEE Std 802.1Q   - Multiple Multicast Registration Protocol (MMRP)
0x8929  IEEE Std 802.1Qbe - Multiple I-SID Registration Protocol
0x8940  IEEE Std 802.1Qbg - ECP Protocol (also used in 802.1BR)


802.1Q & 802.1ad (Q-in-Q)

802.1Q tag format
16 bits 3 bits 1 bit 12 bits

Tag protocol identifier (TPID): 0x8100/0x88A8
Tag control information (TCI) - Priority code point (PCP): IEEE 802.1p class of service - Drop eligible indicator (DEI)/Canonical Format Indicator (CFI): IEEE 802.1Q-2011 clause 6.9.3 - VLAN identifier (VID): up to 4,094 VLANs;0x000 no VLAN; 0x001 default; 0xFFF reserved.

Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol (MVRP), an application of the Multiple Registration Protocol, allowing bridges to negotiate the set of VLANs to be used over a specific link.


VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that propagates the definition of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on the whole local area network.

Cisco Inter-Switch Link (ISL) is a Cisco Systems proprietary protocol that maintains VLAN information in Ethernet frames as traffic flows between switches and routers, or switches and switches. an alternative to the IEEE 802.1Q standard.

Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) is a proprietary networking protocol developed by Cisco Systems for the purpose of negotiating trunking on a link between two VLAN-aware switches, and for negotiating the type of trunking encapsulation to be used.

IEEE P802.1p

PCP value Priority Acronym Traffic types
1 0 (lowest) BK Background
0 1 (default) BE Best effort
2 2 EE Excellent effort
3 3 CA Critical applications
4 4 VI Video, < 100 ms latency and jitter
5 5 VO Voice, < 10 ms latency and jitter
6 6 IC Internetwork control
7 7 (highest) NC Network control

Bit Rate


Net bit rateGross bit rate (line rate)
IEEE 802.11a wireless network is the net bit rate of between 6 and 54 Mbit/s, while the gross bit rate is between 12 and 72 Mbit/s inclusive of error-correcting codes.
Ethernet 100Base-TX physical layer standard is 100 Mbit/s, while the gross bitrate is 125 Mbit/second.



|Standard|Rate||Year| |—|—|—| |IEEE 802.11a|54 Mbit/s|6.75 MB/s|1999| |IEEE 802.11b|11 Mbit/s|1.375 MB/s|1999| |IEEE 802.11g|54 Mbit/s|6.75 MB/s|2003| |IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX)|70 Mbit/s|8.75 MB/s|2004| |IEEE 802.11n|600 Mbit/s|75 MB/s|2009| |IEEE 802.11ac (maximum theoretical speed)|6.8–6.93 Gbit/s|850–866.25 MB/s|2012| |IEEE 802.11ad (maximum theoretical speed)|7.14–7.2 Gbit/s|892.5–900 MB/s|2011|



|NAME|Line-rate (gigabaud)|Line coding|Nominal throughput/direction|Net throughput/direction| Availability| |—|—|—|—| |8GFC|8.5|8b10b|800|825.8|2005| |10GFC|10.51875|64b66b|1,200|1,239|2008| |16GFC|14.025|64b66b|1,600|1,652|2011| |32GFC “Gen 6”|28.05|64b66b|3,200|3,303|2016[6]| |128GFC “Gen 6”|28.05 ×4|64b66b|12,800|13,210|2016[6]|


FC-4 – Protocol-mapping layer, in which upper level protocols such as SCSI, IP or FICON, are encapsulated into Information Units (IUs) for delivery to FC-2. Current FC-4s include FCP-4, FC-SB-5, and FC-NVMe.
FC-3 – Common services layer, a thin layer that could eventually implement functions like encryption or RAID redundancy algorithms; multiport connections;
FC-2 – Signaling Protocol, defined by the Fibre Channel Framing and Signaling 4 (FC-FS-4) standard, consists of the low level Fibre Channel protocols; port to port connections;
FC-1 – Transmission Protocol, which implements line coding of signals;
FC-0 – PHY, includes cabling, connectors etc.;



(eth.dst[0] & 1) && eth.dst!=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff  # Multicast - Broadcast


horizontal distribution area (HDA)
access layer, or equipment distribution area (EDA)