File System

Compare

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_file_systems

File system

Host OS

Online grow

Offline grow

Online shrink

Offline shrink

FAT32(X)

misc.

No

3rd-party

No

3rd-party

NTFS

Windows

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

ReFS

Windows

Yes

?

No

?

Btrfs[51]

Linux

Yes

No

Yes

No

ext4[52]

Linux

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

HFS+

Linux

No

No

No

No

HFS+

macOS

Yes

No

Yes

No

APFS

macOS

?

?

?

?

ZFS

misc.

Yes

No

No

No

ReiserFS[59]

Linux

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

XFS[60]

Linux

Yes

No

No

No

Check info

lshw -short -C disk
lshw -class disk -class storage
lsblk -f # check file system type
tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep -i count
gdisk -l /dev/sda #fdisk many give wrong GPT partiton
# file -s /dev/vda
/dev/vda: DOS/MBR boot sector
# file -s /dev/vda1
/dev/vda1: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data, UUID=... (needs journal recovery) (extents) (large files) (huge files)

Convert between MBR and GPT

sudo sgdisk -g /dev/sda
sudo sgdisk -m /dev/sda
sudo partprobe -s

mkpart, format

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Parted

parted -s /dev/sdb mklabel gpt
parted -s /dev/sdb unit mib mkpart primary 0% 100% / 1MiB 512MiB
mkpart primary fat32 1MiB 512MiB
set 1 esp on
mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1

mount/umount

mount -o rw,remount / # recovery
umount -l /PATH/OF/BUSY-DEVICE
mount -o loop,ro $path $mount_point # ISO
mount.nfs $1:$2 $3
mount -tnfs4 -ominorversion=1 server_nfs_4.1:/dir\
echo $path $mount_point cifs username=$user,password=$passwd 0 0 >> /etc/fstab # SMB

fstab

Loss NAS mount may cause hang!

cat /proc/mounts # list mounted
/dev/vdb1 /root/data ext4 defaults,noatime 0 0
/dev/cdrom /media/CentOS auto user,noauto,exec,utf8 0 0
//192.168.88.10/_ISO /mnt/ISO/ cifs username=user,password=pwd 0 0
//servername/sharename /media/windowsshare cifs guest,uid=1000,iocharset=utf8 0 0
/dev/mapper/x--vg--root /home btrfs defaults,subvol=@home 0 2
/dev/sda2 /mymnt/win ntfs-3g rw,umask=0000,defaults 0 0

is checked by the dump(ext2/3 filesystem backup) utility. This field is usually set to 0, which disables the check.

/ sets the order for filesystem checks at boot time; see fsck(8). 1 for the root device, 2 for other partitions, 0 to disable checking. [Arch] If the root file system is btrfs, set to 0 instead of 1.

LVM

pvdisplay -v -m
Wiping internal VG cache
Wiping cache of LVM-capable devices
--- Physical volume ---
PV Name /dev/sde1
VG Name wd500-vg
PV Size <422.53 GiB / not usable 0
Allocatable yes
PE Size 4.00 MiB
Total PE 108167
Free PE 5523
Allocated PE 102644
PV UUID nPoenO-vin9-wkZF-4Dxh-5WT2-yU3f-EtAMs5
--- Physical Segments ---
Physical extent 0 to 5522:
FREE
Physical extent 5523 to 95122:
Logical volume /dev/wd500-vg/data
Logical extents 0 to 89599
Physical extent 95123 to 95366:
Logical volume /dev/wd500-vg/swap_1
Logical extents 0 to 243
Physical extent 95367 to 108166:
Logical volume /dev/wd500-vg/data
Logical extents 89600 to 102399

Check lv filesystem

file -s /dev/vg1/lv1

Rename

vgrename $vg_uuid new-vg-name

Create

vgcreate vg-name /dev/sdc3
lvcreate -L 80G wd500-vg -n data
mkfs.btrfs /dev/mapper/wd500--vg-data
mount /dev/mapper/wd500--vg-data /data2
echo $(cat /proc/mounts | tail -n 1) >> /etc/fstab ; ls /etc/fstab ;

Activate vg

vgchange -ay

Add disk to vg

pvcreate /dev/sdb # delete all partitions first
vgextend ubuntu-vg /dev/sdb

Remove disk from vg

https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/5/html/logical_volume_manager_administration/disk_remove_ex

pvmove /dev/sdb1
vgreduce myvg /dev/sdb1

lv operations

lvremove sandisk-u2/mint

Resize fs

PV thrink: gparted

lvresize -L +20G /dev/debian9-vg/root # -r, --resizefs
resize2fs /dev/dlvebian9-vg/root
yum install e4fsprogs
resize4fs /dev/debian9-vg/root # resize ext4 if resize2fs error: Filesystem has unsupported feature(s)
lvextend --resize-fs --extents +100%FREE vg/lv # not support btrfs

btrfs

btrfs filesystem resize +60G /data
btrfs filesystem usage /
dmesg | grep crc32c # verify if Btrfs checksum is hardware accelerated, e.g.: crc32c-intel

f2fs

https://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/filesystems/f2fs.txt

NTFS

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/NTFS-3G

Swap

swapoff -v /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-swap_1
lvreduce --size -22G /dev/debian9-vg/swap
mkswap /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-swap_1
swapon -va
echo /dev/VG/LV swap swap defaults 0 0 >> /etc/fstab

Benchmark

dd

dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test_iops bs=512 count=10000 oflag=direct
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test_bw bs=200M count=1 oflag=direct

fio

git clone https://github.com/axboe/fio.git && cd fio/examples/
fio --name=randwrite --ioengine=libaio --group_reporting \
--iodepth=1 --rw=randwrite \
--direct=1 --bs=4k --numjobs=8 \
--size=512M --runtime=5

SMART

apt install smartmontools

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/S.M.A.R.T.

smartctl --info /dev/sdf
smartctl --test=short /dev/sdf
smartctl --all /dev/sdf
smartctl -l selftest /dev/sdf
smartctl -l xerror /dev/sdf
-l TYPE, --log=TYPE
Show device log. TYPE: error, selftest, selective, directory[,g|s],
xerror[,N][,error], xselftest[,N][,selftest],
background, sasphy[,reset], sataphy[,reset],
scttemp[sts,hist], scttempint,N[,p],
scterc[,N,M], devstat[,N], ssd,
gplog,N[,RANGE], smartlog,N[,RANGE]

SAMBA

docker

docker run --restart=unless-stopped --net host --name samba \
-v /data:/data -d \
dperson/samba -p -s "public;/data;yes;no"

apt

apt install samba
vi /etc/samba/smb.conf
[public]
comment = public anonymous access
path = /data
browsable =yes
create mask = 0660
directory mask = 0771
writable = yes
guest ok = yes
service smbd restart