cat .git/HEAD # current branch head
ref: refs/heads/master
cat .git/ORIG_HEAD | xargs git show # prevous state of HEAD

working tree don't include untracked files


git commit -am "save arezzo files"
git commit --amend
-c, --reedit-message <commit> # reuse and edit message from specified commit
-C, --reuse-message <commit> # reuse message from specified commit


git log [<options>] [<revision-range>] [[--] <path>...]
git show [<options>] <object>...
git show [path] # details of last commit log
git log --since=2.weeks

branch and merge

git branch -a # list all
git checkout -b dev # create and checkout a new branch
git checkout dev
git merge master
--squash create a single commit instead of doing a merge
--abort abort the current in-progress merge


git checkout -- <file> # discard changes in working directory
git reset HEAD~2 # undo 2 changes that haven’t been shared
git reset <paths> # opposite of `git add <paths>`
--soft reset HEAD only
--mixed reset HEAD and index (default)
--hard reset HEAD, index and working tree
--merge reset HEAD, index and working tree
--keep reset HEAD but keep local changes
git revert HEAD~2 # undo 2 changes on a public branch

git reset master
git checkout master


git stash
git stash list
git stash apply/pop
git stash apply stash@{2}
git stash drop
git stash drop stash@{0}

remote and push

git remote -v
git remote add [<options>] <name> <url>
-f, --fetch fetch the remote branches
-t, --track <branch> # branch(es) to track
-m, --master <branch>
--mirror[=<push|fetch>] # set up remote as a mirro
cat .git/config
`refspec`: +<src>:<dst>
<src> is the pattern for references on the remote side
<dst> is where those references will be tracked locally
[remote "origin"]
fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
fetch = +refs/heads/master:refs/remotes/origin/master
fetch = +refs/heads/foo/*:refs/remotes/origin/foo/*
git push -u origin master:refs/heads/foo/master
push = refs/heads/master:refs/heads/qa/master
tree .git/refs/
├── heads
│ ├── dev
│ └── master
├── remotes
│ └── origin
│ └── HEAD
└── tags
git push [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
-u, --set-upstream set upstream for git pull/status
git pull origin master # fetch + merge

delete remote branch

git push origin :topic
git push origin --delete topic


git config -l
--global ~/.gitconfig
--local .git/config
--system /etc/gitconfig
--get get value: name [value-regex]
--get-all get all values: key [value-regex]
--get-regexp get values for regexp: name-regex [value-regex]
--get-urlmatch get value specific for the URL: section[.var] URL
--replace-all replace all matching variables: name value [value_regex]
--add add a new variable: name value
--unset remove a variable: name [value-regex]
--unset-all remove all matches: name [value-regex]
git config --global push.default simple
git config --list --show-origin


git config --global http.proxy http://$IP:$Port


[--setup <command>]
[--env-filter <command>]
[--tree-filter <command>]
[--index-filter <command>]
[--parent-filter <command>]
[--msg-filter <command>]
[--commit-filter <command>]
[--tag-name-filter <command>]
[--subdirectory-filter <directory>]
[--original <namespace>]
[-d <directory>] [-f | --force] [--] [<rev-list options>...]

Remove File

Unpushed commit

git rm --cached giant_file # leave it on disk
git commit --amend -CHEAD

Every commit

git filter-branch --tree-filter 'rm -f filename' HEAD
--all # all branches
git filter-branch --index-filter \
'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch filename' HEAD

from Github


git remote add upstream
git fetch upstream
git checkout master
git rebase upstream/master
git push -f origin master

Submodules treat the two projects as separate yet still be able to use one from within the other.

Github API

Download by tag

curl -sSL \
| jq '.[0].zipball_url' | xargs -t wget -O

curl Github

curl -H 'Authorization: token INSERT_ACCESS_TOKEN_HERE' \
-H 'Accept: application/vnd.github.v3.raw' -O -L \

Query latest release

curl -sSL \
| jq '.zipball_url' | xargs -t wget -O



curl -L .html to page, etc: .js CDN: .ipynb fast open:


"root": "./docs"
} #
* [English](en/)
* [Chinese](zh/)

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